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Title: The key to sustainable economic development: a triple bottom line approach
Authors: Nogueira, Elisabete
Gomes, Sofia
Lopes, João M.
Keywords: Triple bottom line
Economic development
Human Development Index
Sustainable society index
Human wellbeing
Environmental wellbeing
Economic wellbeing
Issue Date: 10-May-2022
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Citation: Nogueira, E., Gomes, S., & Lopes, J. M. (2022). The Key to sustainable economic development: a triple bottom line approach. Resources, 11(46), 1-18. 10.3390/resources11050046. Repositório Institucional UPT.
Abstract: Concerns about improving social, environmental, and economic living standards are the basis of the triple bottom line (TBL) link to economic development (ED). Aware of the importance of studying their relationship, this article analysed the influence of TBL on ED. A quantitative method- ology was used. The sample comprised a panel of data from 2006 to 2019 for OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries. Five multiple linear regression models were estimated by the generalised method of moments. The results of this study revealed that the social dimension of TBL boosts ED, the environmental dimension of TBL slows down ED, and the economic dimension of TBL contains conflicting synergies in ED. The Human Development Index (HDI) should now include indicators of environmental wellbeing. Governments should adopt policies to improve social wellbeing to boost ED, work to coordinate the objectives of environmental protection and ED, and combat vulnerabilities arising from public debt. As one of the first studies to assess the influence of TBL on ED at the country level, the present findings contribute to the reflection about the influence of TBL on a country’s ED and strengthens the discussion around the influence of different dimensions of TBL.
ISSN: 2079-9276
Appears in Collections:REMIT – Artigos em Revistas Internacionais / Papers in International Journals

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